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The Y-Haplogroup J2b_455-8 Project

Studying J2b with DYS 455 = 8

The value 8 for DYS 455 (Family Tree DNA marker #16) is very rare. There is a group of a few Ashkenazim who are in Haplogroup J2b2-M102 with fairly closely matching Y-STR profiles. They have a deletion event of three repeats in DYS455 which exist so far only in one other haplogroup (I1a). They also have the unusual value of 19-20 on YCAii. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy is now calling our haplogroup subclade J2b2e. Because the defining mutation for this subclade is DYS 455 being less than 9, there is no reason to order any advanced SNP Testing since the results would be J-M12+ or J-M241+, M304+, M172+, M102+, M12+, and M241+. All the other SNPs would be negative.

All but one family of the project have a family lore of being an Kohanim. In a recent Jewish priesthood study by Dr. Michael F. Hammer with others, we were 6% of all the Kohens. Including the other J2 Kohens, the total were 43% of the Kohanim. When members of our group asked Bennett Greenspan, President of FamilyTreeDNA about this, his answer was

The CMH appears to be in J1 instead of J2...however there is a minor subgroup in J2 that has the oral tradition of being Cohanim. As you probably know the historian Josephus says that during the later Temple II period the position of Cohanim Godal became corrupted with people with $$$ purchasing the position, but we can't ever be 100% sure whether the major group in J1 or the minor group in J2 is the real "McCoy" so to speak.

Dr. Whit Athey in his article about our sub-halogroup in the "Journal of Genetic Genealogy", said that our haplogroup is less than 1000 year old. (You can watch him on the television show "Tracing Your Family Roots" talked about our group.) Using the STRs values of all members that were tested on as least 25 markers the estimate now is about 900 years ago.

We presently have 98 different surnames from the 128 people with surnames. Most Ashkenazims did not take surnames until the late 1700s and early 1800s. Before then, they were known are "name son of name".

Table below came from eight difference sources: members of this Family Tree DNA Project, others tested at Family Tree DNA, Y-search, Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF), Ancestry.com, DNA Heritage, Dr. Athey article, and Dr. Hammer and others' sample of Jewish priesthood. (All of Dr. Hammer Halotypes are in J2b). The table below is sorted somewhat by when major mutations happened, the oldest first.

Family Tree DNA's of Project Y-DNA Results

The markers in green have shown a faster mutation rate then the average
Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing. Other haplogroups have been predicted.
Persons are listed in some order of changes with the oldest near the top.
Ancestral Surame (Place)Haplo-
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Family Tree DNA Marker Sequence No.         12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324 2526272829303132333435363738+
455=8, 393=12, 464=13,14,15,18, CDY b=39 plus 9 others tested at Family Tree DNA
Beck J2 12241510151711151212112917898112716192913141518 111019201314 18 173540119 ->
McIntyre{{, Edward Patrick }} J2 12241510151711151212112917898112716192913141518
Laminack (Alben, Germany 1705) J21224151015 16 11151212112918 8 10 8 112716192913 14 15 17 111019 20 1314 18 18 3539119
Laminack (Germany ) J21224151015 16 111512121129 18 8 10 8 112716192913 14 15 17 111019 20 1314 18 18 3539119
Laminack (Lauterecken, Germany) J21224151015 16 11151212112918 8 10 8 112716192913 14 15 18 111019 20 1314 18 18 3539119
From Ancestry.Com J2b 12 151015 16 1115 11 121129 198 11 26 16192913 14 15 18 1119 209
Molnar (Kald, Hungary) J21224151015 16 11151212112919898 11 26 16192913 14 15 18 11101920131417173439119 ->
Potter (Belarus) J2 122415101516111512121129 18898112616192913141518 11101920131417173439119
Graham Cameron (Scotland) J212241510 16 16 111512121129 18 898 11 26 16192913 14 15 18 1110192013141717 34 39119
Agranat (Russian Federation) J2 12241510 16 171115 13 12112918 898 112716192913 14 15 18 11101920131417 18 3539119
Cagen (Taurage near Sakai) J2b2122415101517111512121130 18898112716192913141518 11101920131417183539119
  Hammer 123 (Ashkenazi Netherlands) J-M12 1224151015171115121211 28 18 898 1127161930
  Hammer 1492 (Ashkenazi Russia) J-M12 1224151015171115121211 28 18 898 11271619299
  Hammer 1500 (Ashkenazi Russia) J-M12 1224151015171115121211 28 18 898 11271619299
Hays (Angenrod Germany) J2 12241510151711151212112918 898 112716192913 14 15 18 111019 20 131417173539119
Altman (Torrington) (Ronsberg, Bohemia) J2 12241510151711151212112918 898 112716192913 14 15 18 111019201314171735 39119 ->
Joseph J2 12241510151711151212112918 898 112716192913 14 15 18 111019 20 131417173539119 ->
Schnitzer (Sejny Poland?) J2 12241510151711151212112918898112716192913141518 11101920131417163539119
Cohen (Poland) J2 12 24 15 10 15 17 11 15 12 12 11 29 18 8 9 8 11 27 16 19 29 13 14 15 18 10 10 19 20 14 14 17 16 35 38 11 9
From Ancestry.Com J2b 12241510151711151212112918898 11271928 13 14 16 18 1110 19 2013119
From Ancestry.Com J2b 122415 11 151711151212112918898 112716192913 14 15 18 1110 19 20 13119
From Ancestry.Com J2b 1223 151015 18 11151212112918898 112716192913 14 15 18 1110 19 2013119
  Hammer 1493 (Ashkenazi Austrohungary) J-M12 1224151015171115121211 28 19898 1127161929 9
Roth (Poland) J2122415101517111512121129 19898112716192913141518 111019201314171735 39119
From Ancestry.Com J2b 12 24151015171115 11 12112919898 1127161930 13 14 15 18 111019 2013119
From Ancestry.Com J2b 12241510151711151212112919898 1127161928 13 14 15 18 10 10 19 20 13119
  Hammer 1485 (Spain Bulgaria) J-M12 12241510151711151212112919898 11 26 1619299
  Hammer 15 (Ashkenazi Austrohungary) J-M12 1224151015 15 11151212112919898 11 26 161929
  Hammer 1480 (Ashkenazi Austrohungary) J-M410 12241510 14 1711151212112919898 11 26 1619299
  Hammer 1471 (Ashkenazi Unknown) J-M121224151015171115121211292089811271619299
Katzenstein (Germany) J212241510151711151112112917898112716192913141518 11101920131417173540119
From Ancestry.Com J2 122415101517111511121129 1981127192913141518 111019209
Cohen (Poland) J2122416101517111511121129 19898112716192913141518 11101920131417173639119
Mitchnick (Ukraine) J21224161015171115 11 121129 19898 112716192913 14 15 18 11101920121417173539119
Katz (Germany) J2 12 25 15 10 15 17 11 15 12 12 11 29
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,14,15,18, CDY b=39 plus 2 others tested at Family Tree DNA
Buchheim (Germany ) J21324151015 16 11 16 12121129 19898 11 26 16192913 14 15 17 11101920131417173539119
Buchheim (Germany) J21324151015 16 11151212112919898 112716192913 14 15 17 11101920131417173539119
From Ancestry.Com J2b1324151014 1711151212112919898 1127192913 14 15 17 1110 19 2013119
Roberts J2132415101517111512121129 19898112716192913141518 11101920131417173538119
Grover {{Christopher Lovelace}} J2132415101517111512 13 1130 19898 112716192913 14 15 18 111019201314171735 40 119 ->
Lang (Germany) J2132415101517111512131130 19898 112716202913 14 15 18 11101920131417173539119
Albanov (Ukraine) J213241510151711151212112918898112716192913141518 11101920131417173639119 ->
Perkins (Ukraine) J2b13241510151711151212112918 898 112716192914 14 15 18 111019 2013141717 35 39119 ->
Cohen J213241510 14 171115 13 12112917 898 1127161929 13 14 15 18 1110 19 2013141717 35 39119
From Ancestry.Com J2b132415101517111512121129188 112716192913 14 15 18 1110 20219
Macks (Russian Federation) J2132415101517111513121130 18 8 9 8 11 26 16 19 29 13 14 15 18 11 10 19 20 13 14 17 17 36 40 11 9
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,13,14,15, CDY b=39 plus 1 other tested at Family Tree DNA
Richardson (Vilna Lithuania) J2b213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415 11101920131417173539119
Sacks (Lithuania 1835) J213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415 1110 1920131417173539119 ->
Roubey (Vilna, Lithuania 1858) J2b13241510151711151212112919898112716192912131415 11101920131417173539119
Lurie (Mogalev Belarus)
J2
1324151015171115121211 28 19898 112716192913131415 1110 19 2013141717 353911 9
Conn (Prussia) J2132415101517111512121128 19898112716192913131415 11101920131417173539119 ->
Schuman J2132415101517111512121129 19898112716192913131415 11101920131417173439119
Cohen (Lithuania 1870) J21324151015171115121211291989811271619291313141511101920131417173339119 ->
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,13,14,15, CDY b=38 plus 7 others tested at Family Tree DNA
Stone {{Jay Spenser}} (Belarus) J213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415111019201314171735 38119
Brief (Lithuania) J213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415111019201314171735 38119
Cohen {{Harold }} (Ruga, Germany) J213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415 1110 19201314171735 38119
Porter (Ukraine) J213241510151711151212112919898 112716192913131415 1110192014 14171735 38 119 ->
Tartell J213241510151711151212112919898 112716192913131415 1110192014 14171735 38 119
Rubin J2132415101517111512121129 19898 11271619291313 1515 111019 20 1314171735 38 119
Gertzman J2132415101517111512121129 18 898 11 26 16192913131415 111019 20 1314171735 38 119
Sarut (Russian Federation) J2 132415101517111513121129 19898112616192913131415 11101920131417173538119
Kaplan (Stakliskes, Lithuania) J2 132515111517111512121129198981126161929131314151110192013141718 3538119 ->
Cohan (Poland) J21324151015171115121211 28 18 898 1127161930 13131415 111019 20 131417 17 34 38 129 ->
Slone (Ukraine) J2 13 24 15 10 15 17 11 15 12 12 11 29 19 8 9 8 11 27 16 19 29 13 13 14 15 11 10 19 20 13 15 17 17 34 38 11 9
Ganger (Germany) J21324151015171115 11 12112919898 112716192913131415 111019 20 13141717 34 38 119
Kahan J2132415101517111512121129 19898 112716192913131415 111019 20 13141717 33 38 119 ->
Small (Ciechanowicz, Poland) J2b213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415 111019 20131417173537 119
Makowiecki (Myszyniec, Poland) J2132415101517111512121129 18 898 112716192913131415 111019 20 1314171735 37 119 ->
Caplan J2132415101518111512121129 19898112716192913131415 11 11 19 20131417173535119 ->
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,13,14,15, CDY b=?? plus 2 others tested at Family Tree DNA
      Athey 114 J2b132415101517111512121129178981027161929151110192013119
  Hammer 1878 (Ashkenazi Belarus) J-M1213241510151711151212112919898 11271619299
Dotan (Belarus) J213241510151711151212112919898112716192913 131415
Deutsch (Farkas Deutsch Hungary) J213241510151711151212112919898112716192913131415
From Ancestry.Com J2b132415101517111512121129 198 11271929131314151110 19 209
From Ancestry.Com J2b132415101517111512121129198 1127161929131314151110 19 209
From SMGF (Ukraine) J2132415101517111512121129198981127161929131314151110 192013119
From Ancestry.Com 13241510151711151212112919898 1127161929131314151110 19 2013119
From Ancestry.Com 13241510151711151212112919898 1127161929131314151110 19 2013119
      Athey 115 J2b13241510151711151212112919898 11271619291313141511 11 19 2013119
  Hammer 2040 (Ashkenazi Lithuania) J-M17213241510 14 1711151212112919898 11271619299
  Hammer 1425 (Ashkenazi Austrohungary) J-M1213241510 11 1711151212112919898 11271619299
  Hammer 771 (Ashkenazi Russia) J-M1213241610151711151212112919898 11271619299
  Hammer 1907 (Ashkenazi Belarus) J-M121323 1510151711151212112919898 11271619299
Mintz J2132415101517111512121129 19898112716192913141415
  Hammer 230 (Ashkenazi Romania) J-M1213241510151711 16 1212112919898 1127161929
  Hammer 760 (Ashkenazi Russia) J-M1213241510151711 16 1212112919898 11 26 1619299
Byers (Russia) J2132415101517111512121129 19898112616192913131415
Meyer{{, Kenneth David }} J2132515101517111512121129 19898112616192913131415
From Ancestry.Com J2b132415101517111512121129188 11 261930 131314151110 19 209
From Ancestry.Com 1324101115 111288 11
Smith (Khmelnik, Ukraine) J2132415101517111512121129 20898112716192913131415
From SMGF (Poland) J2132415101517111512121129208981127161929131314151110 192013119
From SMGF J2132415101517111512121129208981127161929131314151110 192013119
455=8?, 393=13 plus 32 others tested at Family Tree DNA on 12 markers only, all should belong to this haplogroup
Berger {{D. }} (Russian Federtion) J2132415101517111512121129
Jaffe J2132415101517111512121129
Katz {{Harold}} (Onixt, Russia) J2132415101517111512121129
Cohen (New York, New York, USA) 1324151015171114 12121129
Summer J2b213241510 16 18111512121129
Goldberg J2 13 24 15 10 14 17 11 15 13 12 11 29

-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Color Key for Stepwise Deviation from Modal +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 +10

Ancestral Surame 5
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FTDNA Marker Sequence No.

383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
>455=8, 393=12, 464=13,14,15,18, CDY b=39
Beck11 81517 81210 8119122123 16111212168 13242011 12111410131211
Torrington11 81517 81210 8119122123 17111212 168 13242011 12111410131211
Joseph 11 81517 81210 8119122123 16111212178 13242011 12111410131211
Molnar1181517812108118122123161112121781425201113111410131211
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,14,15,18, CDY b=39
Grover11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 81424201113111410131211
Albanov11 81517 81210 811912212316111212 168 13242011 12111410131211
Perkins11 81517 81210 811912212316111212 168 13242011 12111410 121311
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,13,14,15, CDY b=39
Sacks 11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 81424201113111410 121211
Conn11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 81424201113111410131211
Cohen11 81517 81210 8 1291221231611121217 81424201113111410131211
455=8, 393=13, 464=13,13,14,15, CDY b=38
Caplan11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 81324201113111410121211
Makowiecki11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 81424201113111410131211
Porter11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 8142420 1213111410131211
Kaplan11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 81424201113111410131211
Cohan11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 8142420 1213111410131211
Kahan11 81517 81210 81191221231611121217 8142420 1213111410131211

Network of Haplogroup J2b2e


The mutation on DYS 455 to 8 from 11 happened less than 1000 years ago; on DYS 393 to 13 about 700 years ago; and on DYS 464a,b,c,d to 13,13,14,15 about 600 years ago. William E. Howard III has developed a method that use correlations for the analysis of pairs of 37 markers Y-STR Haplogtypes which he named RCC. Each RCC is roughly equal to a little less than 50 years. He then used a computer program called Mathematica to make the tree which is shown below. Because of randomness of mutations, the pairing could be off by up to 300 years. The way you can estimate when the MCRA between any two persons lived, find the RCC at the junction point connecting the two and multipy it by 50. This would give you an time estimate within 300 years. RCC values when paired have a standard deviation of about 3, or 150+ years, but the RCCs of the junction points probably are slightly more trustworthy.